Book report on Israel
I wrote this a really long time ago in like middle school. I know, I wrote a lot back then
In 1947, the United Nations Special Commission on Palestine(UNSCOP) wanted Palestine to be divided into separate Arab and Jewish states. Also, they wanted Jerusalem to be an international administration. With support from the United States and Russia ( the Soviet Union at the time), the UN Resolution (GA 181) to come into effect. Unfortunately, the Jews accepted it, but the Arabs rejected it. So, after the UN Resolution came into effect, the land was divided into two open borders between the two communities. However, this plan did not work out, and during that time the Arab League decided to declare war on Israel to get rid of the Jews in Israel. However, during the war, Abdullah, the King of Jordan, secretly had agreements with Israel to annex some of Palestine, but Syria wanted to annex the northern part of Palestine. This was the start of the War for Independence in 1948.
Before Israeli independence, there was a lot of drama going on. Two Arab armies engaged in hostile disputes against Jewish towns and across the sea of Galilee. Although the British were watching the whole episode and were supposed to stop it, they did not and let the Arabs attack. Also, in November and December of 1947, Arab riots took place in Jerusalem. The rioters cut off food, water, and fuel to Jerusalem during that time. To stop all the fighting, the Haganah(a Zionist underground army) carried out an operation that attacked the Arab villages of Qoloniyah and Qastal, which were occupied by the Arab forces. Both these cities fell to the Zionist army on April 11th and 12th. So on May 14th, 1948, Jews proclaimed that their land was now the independent State of Israel. After the State of Israel was formed, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, and Iraq joined the Arabs in the fight against Israel in what is called the “Israeli War.” The forces of Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq were stopped by the border, but the Jordanian forces from the east captured Jerusalem. Also, Haganah stopped the forces of Egypt. Finally, after a few months of war in 1949, a cease-fire was set up by the UN. During that time, the Israeli defense force was formed. After the cease-fire, Israel got some 26% of territory west of the Jordan River. Jordan got large portions of Judea, and Samaria and Egypt were able to take the Gaza Strip. Also, “Israel offered the Arab inhabitants in Israel the full and equal citizenship and due representation in all its provisional and permanent institutions” (page 5 on the Wikipedia website). Unfortunately, many Arabs refused the offer. In 1967, there was again tension between Israel and Syria, Jordan, and Egypt. Following Egypt closing the Straits of Tiran to the Israelis, there was another war between Israel and her neighbors, called the “Six-Day war.” On June 11th, Israel defeated the three Arab states and got the West Bank, Gaza Strip, Sinai Peninsula and Golan Heights. The “Green Line” of 1949 became the boundary between Israel and what is now called the “Disputed Territories.”
On October 6th, 1973, Egypt and Syria started a surprise attack against Israel. Their reason for the attack was to regain the territories they lost in the 1967 war. However, they failed to seize any of that territory. After the war, peace followed. In March of 1979, the Egyptian president helped sign the “Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty.” In the treaty, Israel was to withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula and ordered the withdrawal of Israeli forces from the settlements founded at the Peninsula in the 1970’s.
In 1982, Israel attacked Lebanon. The reason for the attack was to defend settlements on the borders from terrorist attacks. This resulted because terrorists of the Abu Nidal Faction assassinated the Israeli ambassador in London. During the attack, the Israeli defense force captured the Lebanese capital of Beirut and forced the Palestinian Liberation Organization from the country. During the rest of the 1980’s, there was not much going on except for the resigning and electing of prime ministers. In the 1990’s there was the Gulf War. During the war, Iraq sent thirty-nine Scud missiles into Israel because they thought that Israel was involved in the fighting in the Gulf War. Only one Israeli died from the Scud missiles and one died of a heart attack during a hit of a Scud missile.
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The information I am giving you is basically the reason why Israel is a “hot spot” today. As you may know, the Hamas military dug a long tunnel going to the Gaza Strip. After killing Israeli soldiers there, Israel began what is called “Operation Summer Rains.” Israeli air forces bombarded the bridges, roads and the power stations in the Gaza Strip. As for the 2006 conflict with Lebanon, Israel attacked Lebanon because Hezbollah raided the borders of Israel, captured two soldiers and killed three soldiers. So, Israel blamed the Lebanese for the attack. If you read the news, Israel carried out air and naval blockades in Lebanon and bombed Lebanon from the air. In return, Hezbollah launched rockets into Israel and attacked Israeli forces on the ground. A cease-fire was finally set up at 5:00 UTC on August the 14th, 2006. Even so, Lebanon and Israel violated the cease-fire agreement that killed many citizens of both Israel and Lebanon.