Part 3 Justified by Faith: Hebrew vs. Hellenized Anti-Semitism
The historical development of falsehoods used to label the Jewish people. Often these falsehoods were tainted with superstition and historical accusations. Frequently it was those who most feared losing their economic and political power that brought these accusations foreward. An example is the false statement that the Temple Mount is not Jewish in origion when Archaeology proves that the surrounding land has been occupied for centuries by the Jewish people.
- 1) False propaganda
- #Jews connection to Magic and Science
- B)(Jews intent on money):income, job, economic situation
- # Individualism; Calvinism- wealth sign of virtue
- #(Death of Christ)
- #(Jews untrustworthy): helped Germany to reach great industrial advancements
- # The industrial and intellectual success of the Jews
- # Jews presented as impure: thus the Jews lost most of their elected offices in Germany.
- E) Education: #Rudimentary legislation to protect the Jews in both universities and businesses were blocked
- F)Economics: Economic satisfaction
- 2) Antiforeigner sentiment
- 3)Controls of Economy:#The modern Prometheus of Germany
- Control Shelter
- Not Crazy
- # prospects of getting better apartments for non-Jewish
- A) Control Fiat: #Jews segregated to banking, universities; and business
- 4)Control Politics
- Political Irrationality
- Specific sets of Circumstances-Greed
- 3). It is clear that the blame for Anti-Semitism falls clearly on the non-Jews.
- #Political forces that were Antisemitic take away home and purse of Jews.
- #European Jews began to attempt to join the national sense of Germans identity but to no avail
- C)Revolt of Parties against Intellectual and Moneyed
- # Politicians we able to pit the working class against the Jews
- 5)Control Commerce: apparatus of distribution and administration.
- # Modernity mixed with Prejudices
- #Class distinction between the agrarian farmers and the more modern Jewish businessman
- # Non Jewish corporations motivated by political and financial gain eventually to gain a secure foothold in Nazi Germany.
- Modernization allows the evolution of authority from state to Globalized Corporations.
- Theory of integration
- Germany made reparations
- Turn to War for Profit
- Utility holding Companies
- Control Banks: Theory from Adams Smith “Wealth of Nation” to Calvinism
- The Federal Reserve Act of 1913
- Homeland for the Jews under the Balfour Declaration of 1917
- J.P. Morgan and Germany
1) False propaganda
A)Religion: classical anti-Semitism
The antisemitism of the sixteenth century was not the result of the Jews being unwilling to convert and assimilate into general society. This was often the argument used to account for Luther's antisemitism but its premise was false. The Jews made a Christian contribution to both Catholic and Protestant religious development. In fact the record of Pure Blood laws involved in the role of Spain and Europe will reveal that “only a test of blood and ancestry could provide a distinction between one Christian and another now that so many Jews had converted; and were no longer subject to traditional forms of repressive legislation.(Freidman,7)
#Jews connection to Magic and Science
Role of Christian churches
The role of Christian churches in this time seemed to have become shameful. Perhaps even believing the old false tales created against the Jewish people. In Germany the churches there did nothing to stop the genocide. Here was where the entire system of Nazi Plans should have come unraveled. Public opinion only helped to drive the euthanasia campaign underground. Jewish Christians were allowed to be taken away. As a student, I found this quote quite intriguing. “The ancients taught the philosophies the use of criticism, it was modern philosophers who taught them the possibilities of power,”.(Gay,xi)
B)(Jews intent on money):income, job, economic situation
# Industrial Revolution
Industrialized death camps-solves psyche
Due to the Modernity of the Industrial process, a system that the Jewish people had served now turned its technology against them. It was easy for the executioners to kill adult males but to kill helpless women and children was a different story. To reduce stress a more efficient killing industry was realized. A system in which efficient death camps became industrialized to the point where gas was used from refinements of existing technologies.
# Individualism; Calvinism- wealth sign of virtue
The Jew as the moneylender
An article written by Jerome S. Legge, Jr.called “An Economic Theory of Antisemitism? Exploring Attitudes in the New German State,” reveals that because of the negative view in the Middle Ages held by clerical leaders on lending money with interest, Jews got that role by default. This was further strengthened by such famous writers as Shakespeare in his story, “The Merchant of Venus”. Thus the working class of Hitlers time often saw the Jews as Misfit Bourgeois and an agent of the economic sphere of the middle man,"(Legge,2). Legge also discovered that the Nazi party purposely began to recruit unskilled workers because they were often more threatened by foreigners and thus more vulnerable to Antisemitism because of economic insecurity.
#(Death of Christ)
Classical Antisemitism can be seen in how the Jewish people were viewed by Christian religions of classical times. Unfortunately this prejudice continued on into Modern times. Jerome Friedman in his article “Jewish Conversion, the Spanish Pure Blood Laws and Reformation: A Revisionist View of Racial and Religious Antisemitism” states that Martin Luther felt he saw Jewish/New Christian influences everywhere about them. Thus Martin Luther’s writing became an influence on Anti-Semitism of Nazi party. In another place in Friedman's article he describes how the sixteenth century priests purity of blood law stipulated anyone with at least one Jewish ancestor was not considered a real Christian. Thus we learn that this law would be Modernized into a form of selection for antiSemitism.
#(Jews untrustworthy): helped Germany to reach great industrial advancements
#The rise of Zionism.
With the rise of Zionism I have found information which reveals that Antisemitism is still not dead. I also see that Modernity is alive and well in its attempt to not only crush the faith of Jewish people but also that of their spiritual brothers and sisters of Abraham. Attempts to take away every square inch of the land of Israel given by G_d is still being done. When the Jews began to trickle back to Jerusalem in the early nineteenth century all they found was a barren desert with their Temple Mount devoid of its former splendor. With their farmng ability they were able to make it into a little bit of paradise. The desert began to bloom. But the Nazi plan to destroy the Jews incited The return of anti-semitism / “Haj Muhammed Amin alHusseini , the grand Mufti of Jerusalem, the leader of the Palestinian Arabs in the war years, had been an avid Nazi supporter, and admirer of Hitler. Palestine was a termed used by ancient Rome in labeling the Jews of that area. There were no such thing as Palestinian Arabs until Jewish farmlands taken from Jewish settlers returning to their homeland.
According to author Berenbaum, Michael, of the book “Not your father’s antisemitism : hatred of the Jews in the twenty-first century /,” a cold demographic is falling into place. One in which supposedly Europe would be reshaped into what would be called Eurabia, an Arab continent that would be vested with tremendous political and economic power. Let us pray that G_d will guide us to the right path to Stand at the gates of Jerusalem to protect the Jewish people of our Faith. The democracy that Israel offers to those about them is not one of evil but one that offers balance for all people.
# The industrial and intellectual success of the Jews
The term called Mode of Production or relationship for production is actually a general term that usually takes place in the production process itself. In Birbaum book “The Crisis of the Industrial society” one discovers some very common occurrences in the developing Modernity that took place In Germany. The old Bourgeois elites and Old Bourgeois groups that surrounded the middle class changed roles in some cases. New elements emerged that offered less skilled workers abilitys to perform new jobs. In the case of the Jews they got Jobs which did not involve interaction with the lower working classes such as being a professor at a university, Doctor, Lawyer, Teacher. Even the store owners only interacted in the business sense with the everyday German. Thus one could argue that they were the possessors of property and business more than working class. The industrial success of the Jews actually made them separate from the majority of working class Germans. Also all of the trade unions and military armies had less Jews than Germans. Jews were a minority. When political laws removed the Jews from their jobs and businesses the lower class Germans were able to temporary take their places. “The introduction of new technological processes of Modernity changed the character of the more advanced type of industrial work: driving upward the semiskilled worker,” (Birnbaum.p9). Thus the semiskilled worker could choose to enter into Nazi Germany perhaps even as an officer depending upon his education.
# Jews presented as impure: thus the Jews lost most of their elected offices in Germany.
The Nuremberg laws of 1935
New laws based on the theory of Darwin's Epicurean thoughts stripped Jews of their citizenship and gave legal shape to a new type of Modern slavery. Anyone marrying or having sexual relations with a Jew person was prohibited. (Jones,p. 149)
E) Education: #Rudimentary legislation to protect the Jews in both universities and businesses were blocked
Rational versus irrational ideology of Education
The killing of Jews and others were highly irrational from a social perspective but not of the ideological one. The Nazi had got rid of thousands of scientist and other intellectuals. Hitler had once said, “If the dismissal of Jewish scientist means an annihilation of contemporary German science, then we shall do without science for a few years,”(Staub,97).
Neither the German economic elites nor all of the professionals that included the clergy attempted to stop the Anti-Semitism. In fact various sections of professional intellectuals including, lawyers and psychiatrist helped in the formation and implementation of the Nazi policies. No single actively compelled these academics to work on the regimes behalf. After the war it was found that the files bulged with unsolicited recommendations.
F)Economics: Economic satisfaction
This part of my research delved into the power of Sterling and Germany’s hunger to gain a foothold into the British Sterling. Some interresting connections between the global expansionism of Germany and it connection to Global busnesses leads to more secret connections to the cause of Modernity’s Antisemitism. Once Germany had lost its allianced with Russia, Georg Leo von Caprivi; a German statesmen who had replaced Bismarck as Chancellor of Germany attempted to make an alliance with Britain but was refused. Both were fierce trade rivals. Many of the conservative Germans called the British a liberal political system spoiled by commercial greed.
2) Antiforeigner sentiment
#Foreigners hurt social systems
Second rate power
After World War I Germany was reduced to a second rate power and then fingers started pointing. The liberal regime of the Weimar Republic was openly considered to be a JudenRepubliq. For the ultraconservative circles two big questions arose. How is a sudden cruel defeat of Germay's army and its consequences going to be interpreted to the public? The answer was quickly found: a stab in the back. They accused the Jews of being accomplices of the Bolsheviks with the allies, and said that the Jews had formatted immense plot against Reich by disorganizing things behind the lines in propagating pacifist ideas. (Staub)
3)Controls of Economy:#The modern Prometheus of Germany
The clear picture of what happened in Germany from 1850 up to the end of Nazism is verified by revealing how Modernity as the great instigator in the causal actions. It became the actual catalyst to Hitler’s final solution. Modernity was a great maker and destroyer; an enemy and friend to the Jewish nation.
What becomes evident is that the businesses involved with banking had a clear role in funding Nazi Germany. The modern invention of Global banking became another method which helped to rearm Germany by building up its military on one hand and then serving its global enemies interrest as well. There is no doubt that well known companies took an active role in running businesses which helped to keep Hitler’s Germany going even in war time.
The question must be asked-how could these businesses be considered neutral? The banks supplyed money to Germany on one hand while loaning money to their enemy. Global businesses profited by changing money into gold bullion which was outside both the Allies and German societies. So when the war ended those responsible for the war could go off and live very rich life’s at the expense of all of the Jewish people killed and all of those lives lost because of war.
Why weren’t certain industries such as the automobile, chemical, and railways bombed in Germany during WWII? It seems clear to me that the railroad was a key element to stopping the Killing of the Jewish people. Another question comes to mind. Why the Newspapers around the world didn't reveal the atrocities taking place in Nazi Germany until the very end of the war? How come the United States and Great Britain wouldn't allow the immigration of the Jews for salvations sake? This is something we all have to live with. If I were able to travel back to that time I would sound the alarm. I would bomb the railroads leading to those death camps. Then I would go to the newspapers and request that they do something too!
# Ownership given to nonJews:thus Jews were forced out of homes.
Jews fled abroad
Many of the Jews began to flee abroad in order to escape the purge. They abandoned home and even much of their wealth. The Nazi’s only allowed a fraction of their wealth to be exported. Many of the countries abroad would not accept the Jewish refugees. This included Britain and America as well. Hundreds that remained in Nazi Germany committed suicide. This persecution increased with the night known as Krisallnacht(night of broken glass) took place.(Jones).
Even the mild Antisemitism leading up to the eventual Holocaust began transporting millions of Jews out of the country first to Jerusalem then when that became unpopular to be gassed. “Tens of thousands were involved in moving the millions of Jews over hundreds of thousands miles to be taken in the camp to be gassed… It was recorded that those people who were participating in this mass murder were normal by conventional standards of mental health. After the war interviews and psychological testing found no evidence of mental illness or psychological dysfunction in the Nürnberg defendants. Mass murder in this treatment are commonplace and humanistic history,”(Staub P. 91).
# prospects of getting better apartments for non-Jewish
Lebensraum living space German nationalism
Hitler had promised Germans living space as a part of his Ideology. He felt that as Aryans, the bearers of the superior culture had a right to their place in the sun. He felt that taking land from inferior races was okay. A consistent German Nationalism that stressed the expressed purpose of Germany fighting. (Staub, 95)
A) Control Fiat: #Jews segregated to banking, universities; and business
Rise of entire social stratum-free economy
In reading Adolf Leschnitzer’s book , “ The magic background of modern anti-Semitism; an analysis of the German-Jewish relationship” I have found some very enlightening information. The entire social stratum of the Jew rested on certain social traits that is preserved throughout their generations. First and foremost was economic self improvement. This in itself makes Modernity seem connected to the Jewish people. This in turn prompted them to attend universities which enabled them their choice of academic professions. The Jews had been barred from the guilds, and from the agrarian life. Thus according to Leschnitzer they were forced into an economic no man’s land, which was subject to little or no regulation. Because of their peculiar talents they adapted well to Modernity’s changes.
A)NonJews rise to political power
Upper Mobility by Force
In review what appears to be the case in Germany is the change of shop keepers and agrarian farmers to a new Modernity. This Modernity brought together the farmers and shop keepers into the city as workers of a large industrial base. During the time of upward mobility the working class enjoyed the surplus of goods available to them, but when the Hyperinflation hit their good times ended. The Jewish shop keepers of Germany were forced to give up shops and their more modern supermarkets. Social economic forces were able to empower a political party embracing a type of socialism that benefited the working class by doing away with the supermarkets owned by Jewry. The new industrial bloodline of the German industrialist were able to further take all the assets of the Jews by laws that made the former Jews that had embraced the (Calvinistic ideology of having virtues through their business and profit sense) appear as the enemy of the Nationalistic Modernity. Jews were presented not only as traitors and the cause of Germanys first loss in World War I, but also the cause of the Hyperinflation plaguing Germany.
According to Steven Bellers book “ANTISEMITISM:A Very Short Introduction , the definition of what Antisemitism is compared to the Ideology of Communism is very contradictory. It can however be defined as a self-styled ideology and political movement which he explains was established in 1879 by Wilhelm Marr to combat Semitism. This political organization was called the Antisemite League. Beller argues that the development that led to the Holocaust involved a large degree of instrumental rationality that only remotely relied on irrational illusions.
Specific sets of Circumstances-Greed
Thus the student of Anti-Semitism discovers to his horror that their Ideology was a form of Jew hatred which became an ends to a means for the profit of specific groups. Beller reveals that it could only have come about under a very unique set of circumstances of cause and effect. “Rather this political movement prospered through the development and success in a historical context in which it existed, and this is specific historical events and sets of circumstances became the catalyst for anti-Semites,”(Beller,)
3). It is clear that the blame for Anti-Semitism falls clearly on the non-Jews.
Jewish people victims of Stereotyping
Steven Beller neatly presents a logical case of how the political, economic, religious, and false prejudices of the Central Europe all came together to bring about a rational plan of destruction for the Jews. Some of his evidence is that of the premise written by a postmodernist approach pioneered by Zygmunt Baumann, who reveals anti-Semitism and the Holocaust as a product of modernity. The Jews were forced into certain occupations that involved Banking, Stores, and medicine and intellectual pursuits because of the very strong prejudices in the agrarian areas of central Europe. When they were favored by Kings or Emperors everything went well, but when the Economies waned the Jews would constantly be put up as the scapegoats. This was especially true when the age of enlightenment was replaced with that of the irrationalist
#Political forces that were Antisemitic take away home and purse of Jews.
The communist party had acquired plenty of strength. Germans were turning to two extremes . In 1932 two totalitarian powers had an absolute majority in Reichstag. But both hated the system. Yet the government could not operate properly without them. The growing blame for the loss of jobs and loss of honor was squarely being blamed on the Jews. The propaganda used by Hitler’s Nazi party stated, ““ better Nazi than Red was an argument which made many turn to Hitler. In the July 1932 elections the Nazis emerged as the largest party in the German parliament. In January 1933 Hitler was appointed Chancellor. (Staub p. 94).
#European Jews began to attempt to join the national sense of Germans identity but to no avail
Reform Judaism adopted by 1900
In 1900 the German Jews had attempted to adopt Reform Judaism in which an ethical religion of reason derived from Jewish teachings similar to Protestantism. These reforms didn't last . The Jews were drawn back to their center of culture. Even if they had remained they would still have been accused by the Nazi’s of being impure.
C)Revolt of Parties against Intellectual and Moneyed
# Urban population grew into a political party that trumped any protests of the dwindling Jewish owners.
In a reversal to today's modern security, Nazi Germany designed a complete mantrap which first ghettoized the Jews, then put them in concentration camps. They had also something like electronic sniffing devices, but they were called German Shepherds. They had guard surveillance 24 hours a day. In the legal realm the Nuremberg laws allowed the design of the first modern passport which would prevent any Jewish person from coming or going anywhere. In Hitler's Germany people rapidly became accustomed to the new security regime.
# Politicians we able to pit the working class against the Jews
Hitler and Arab exchange ideas
According to writer Gabriel Schoenfeld, in his book “The return of anti-semitism / “
Haj Muhammed Amin alHusseini , the grand Mufti of Jerusalem, the leader of the Palestinian Arabs in the war years, had been an avid Nazi supporter, and admirer of Hitler. He had traveled to Germany in 1941 and was granted an audience with Fuhrer
He is one prominent figure whose influence spanned the era. An avid Nazi supporter and admirer of Hitler, he traveled to Germany 1941 and was granted audience with the Fuhrer. He collaborated in the bureaucratic apparatus and made occasional broadcast on German radio to Arabic speaking countries encouraging the common working class to kill the Jews.
5)Control Commerce: apparatus of distribution and administration.
Two major figures against the Jews
Two major figures in the propaganda war against the Jews centered on international figures. Henry Ford with his promoting of the Protocols of the Elders. His campaign did not stay long. It is said that within a couple of years he had reversed himself entirely. The other was Charles Lindbergh who had described Jews as a sinister force that was pushing the U.S. into war.
# Modernity mixed with Prejudices
In the book “Science and Political Power” by Susanne Heim, Carola Sachse, and Mark Walker I have found the premise that “ The separation of knowledge from power has been central to the legitimating of western science; yet, science has been fundamental to the augmentation of modern state power, especially the perfection of the means of violence” to be very true. The easier it is to kill the more distant the emotion of Moral culpability becomes. For example the bombs dropped from a jet fighter are connected to the pilot, yet he is ordered to do so from a higher authority. In turn the higher authority makes a case for serving G_d and country under the auspices of the premise “for the good of all”. It becomes increasingly easy for a family unit under such a state nationalism to rationalize and think irrationally that blame being placed on German Jews was based on a plausible rationale. Knowledge, at least a theory of acceptable knowledge lifted from Epicurean antiquity could now be brought to bare. Thus helping to cloak a guilty concience with a false precept of the nobility of a nationalism. One that would bring back a pride and a renewed statue to a Germany in the throes of Hyperinflation and the recent memory of losing its first world war.
The concept of Irrationalism mixed with logic can be traced throughout the history of philosophy. The most prominent irrationalists in the mid-19th century were F. Nietzsche, the founder of the philosophy of life, and E. Hart-mann (Germany), with his “philosophy of the unconscious.” Its when Modernity embraced Irrationalism that Anti-Semitism became even more dangerous. For now those who felt the Jews were the killers of Christ could justify their feelings of Irrationalism that differed from Enlightenment with the aid of modern science! It also served as a catalyst that helped back Hitler against other powerful parties such as the Communist party. Irrationalism is in direct contradiction to Marxist-Leninist philosophy, which takes a scientific and materialistic world view.(Wiki)
#Class distinction between the agrarian farmers and the more modern Jewish businessman
Loss of Identity
What appears to be the case in Germany is the change of shop keepers and agrarian farmers to a new Modernity. This Modernity brought together the farmers and shop keepers into the city as workers of a larger industrial base. During the time of upward mobility the working class enjoyed the surplus of goods available to them, but when the Hyperinflation hit and their good times ended. The Jewish shop keepers of Germany were forced to give up shops and their more modern supermarkets. Social economic forces were able to empower a political party embracing a type of socialism that benefited the working class by doing away with the supermarkets owned by Jewry. The new industrial bloodline of the German industrialist were able to further take all the assets of the Jews by laws that made the former Jews that had embraced the (Calvinistic ideology of having virtues through their business and profit sense) appear as the enemy of the Nationalistic Modernity. They were presented as traitors and the cause of Germany’s first loss in World War I and also the disaster of the Hyperinflation plaguing Germany. 1(Birnbaum)
# Non Jewish corporations motivated by political and financial gain eventually to gain a secure foothold in Nazi Germany.
(Mode of production or relationship for production), obviously more general terms for set of phenomena: the social relationships constructed about the production of process itself. Thus in place of the old bourgeois elites and old bourgeois groups in the middle of class structure, new elements emerged. These new elites are managers of industry, managers in the state sector, entrepreneurial technicians, occasionally politicians. Their characteristics is not the possession of property but manipulation, not permanent monopoly, but political power with manipulation as well, promotive access to reward privileges, not to direct inheritance of a favored position but acquired culture in skill.( Birnbaum)
A similar distinction marks the boundary between the new middle class in the new working-class rate of expansion of the former is any case greater than the rate of expansion the latter the introduction of new technological processes of Modernity has changed the character of the more advanced type of industrial work: driving downward the semiskilled worker. (Birnbaum)
Thus the semiskilled worker was forced to enter into Nazi Germany perhaps even as an officer depending upon his education. One factor counteracts the degradation of industrial status suffered by these workers without ability to master new technical processes: the necessity to maintain full or nearly full employment of the economic machinery of capitalism turns it all around. Relatively free of the cycle of listed unemployment which was a constant threat to previous generations of workers, the new working class of pureblood Germans began to adopt a habit of consumption of the middle class at the expense of nonGermans via the War machine.
Modernization allows the evolution of authority from state to Globalized Corporations.
That the power of employment and the ability to spend freely enhanced the urge to ingnore Antisemitism can be proved. Examine the power that evolved from Corporations blossoming through the international Bankers and merchants of war. Big businessmen saw the potential profits and the possibility of being seen as a type of Savior in a business that brought employment to people hungry for jobs. These new jobs brought about a renewal in Germany money. The potential of work and creation of available goods made it feasible to start a stock market born of the new rise in an international bank. One that would be untouchable, and unaffected by any type of war. Unaccountable because of the supposed rights and long term goal of these corporate banks vision of a private utopia.
Theory of integration
An additional phenomena hard to encompass was the integration and existence of a large number of people living on the margins of an industrial society. In this case it was the Jews vying for position with ex-agrarian farmers, the terminally unemployed or the chronically unemployed; those lacking in skills or those with knowledge. The Jews became the scapegoats and the poster child for the Germany bloodlines.
Germany made reparations
For the first time in multilateral trade or investment agreement, corporations are granted private legal standing, given them the ability to sue governments directly and receive monetary damages. After the loss of Germany first World War the international community saw to it that Germany made reparations the other countries. Payment in money or materials by a nation defeated in war. After World War I, reparations to the Allied Powers were required of Germany by the Treaty of Versailles.
Behind the scene.was the rise of the Corporations sponsored by international banks. Corporations through the Ideas of Modernity were beginning to shape a new (More), that of the Corporation being a physical entity. One that had rights to sue in any injury case. In the case of the investors of the stock market collapse of 1929, many investors lost. What happened to the German Deutschmark? Hyperinflation. Was it purposelessly inflated so that it caused the German government such a economic loss that people got desperate. Then the non-Jewish Elite decided to make a profit by blaming the Jews one again.
Turn to War for Profit
This in turn gave intellectual science and businesses able to manufacture chemical, steel, ships, and even new types of medicine the ability to make even greater profits. The loss or winning of the war would make no difference to these individuals as their bank would be safe and their money would be in the gold standard!
Utility holding Companies
"Some people believed that abuses by utility holding companies contributed to the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the Depression that followed. "Many people blamed the crash on commercial banks that were too eager to put deposits at risk on the stock market."
Control Banks: Theory from Adams Smith “Wealth of Nation” to Calvinism
According to Richard Sanders, author of "Facing the Corporate Roots of American Fascism," March 2004, the banks and big businesses have been involved with Nazi Germany. The advancing Modernity of global expansion seemed to have created banks and companies that were considered neutral in time of war. How can this be when some many people were killed? In 1930 the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) was created using the “Young Plan,” after Morgan banker, Owen D. Young. ““Its supposed purpose was to funnel German money to the Allies in reparation for WWI. In reality, the BIS funneled money into Germany to rebuilt its might. Inspired by Hitler’s Economics Minister and Reichsbank president, Hjalmar Schacht, who had lived in Brooklyn, the BIS was owned by the world’s largest central banks, including Morgan’s First National Bank of New York, the Federal Reserve of New York, the Reichsbank and the central Banks of England, Italy and France,” (Sanders)
The role of central banks getting into the role of War time banking made a lot of sense for big business. Any students research will quickly uncover that during the Modernity of the German era of 1920-1945 banks were making new inroads. The shaping of financial structure of Germany during the hyperinflation of the 1920’s brought about numerous changes in the value of their money. It was a sort of experiment that had been tried before. Speculating had taken place in countries such as France with their stock market Mississippi Scheme and Britain’s South Sea bubble. Previously banks in America could only do trade with Pounds sterling, thus requiring the middle man-Britain. They had to buy trade credits and basically bet that the stock they were buying would rise in value.
The Federal Reserve Act of 1913
This was not the only companies that got in bed with Nazi Germany. Railroad companies also “The Federal Reserve Act of 1913 created a US central bank authorised to discount and purchase trade acceptances as a mechanism for smoothing interest rates and managing credit conditions. It removed the prohibition on foreign branching and authorised banks to deal in trade acceptances.20 World War I then disrupted the provision of trade credit by London and the other European financial centers, giving the New York market an opportunity to get up and running,”(Eichengreen).
Homeland for the Jews under the Balfour Declaration of 1917
The aggressive taking of German war reparations obviously greatly increased Germany’s war time spirit. After World War I the UK centered international economic system punished Germany by limiting their shipping privileges. London seized Germany’s Bank assets under Article 248 of the Versailles Treaty. “The British government seized the London branch of the Anglo-Austrian Bank, a leading Vienna-based institution with links to Germany. Once the government and its friends in the private sector acquired its records and correspondence, they could see how its affiliated institutions operated in Central Europe. This knowledge “eased the way for private British interests to seize control of the Anglo-Austrian network,”(Eichengreen). Also the London branch had seized German banks in Turkey . Note Turkey was an ally of Germany. Also notice that Britain soon after had begun to rein in their promises for the Homeland for the Jews under the Balfour Declaration of 1917 which at the time included all of the Land of Jordan. Perhaps the picture of the Baghdad railroad running from Turkey and even from upper Russia into the very heart of Africa was on the greedy minds of all of the colonial powers? A homeland for the Jewish nation had temporarily been sweep under the rug.
J.P. Morgan and Germany
New companies began to make inroads to Germany including J.P. Morgan,Jr. In 1913 Congress had passed the Federal Reserve act which had been created on Jekyll island. It allowed the private banks to go overseas to do business. This would be how the dollar would be valued. Today it is valued on the very shaky Petrol dollar. The anti-Semitism tied to this company and others was very apparent from the start. It helped Britain by funding them to buy American steel. Morgan also got into forming the Navy league. But Morgan also funded Mussolini’s main overseas bank.
The worst part of Morgan’s international bank the (BIS) was its clear Antisemitism by doing the following. ““the $378 million in gold that had been sent to the Bank by the Nazi government after Pearl Harbor for use by its leaders after the war. Higham explains that this gold had been looted from the national banks of Austria, Holland, Belgium and Czechoslovakia, or melted down from the Reichsbank holding of the teeth fillings, spectacle frames, cigarette cases and lighters and wedding rings of the murdered Jews.”( Higham).
link to part 4 Justified by Faith: Hebrew vs. Hellenized Anti-Semitism