All Short of "Artificial Intelligence" Development

viewgreen By viewgreen, 30th Dec 2014 | Follow this author | RSS Feed
Posted in Wikinut>Writing>Essays

Scientists have two different perspectives of Artificial Intelligence (AI). The first is the view of Artificial Intelligence as a field of science that only focuses on the process of thinking. While the second is the view of Artificial Intelligence as a field of science that focuses on behavior. The second perspective view Artificial Intelligence wider because a behavior is always preceded by a thought process.

Artificial Intelligence in One Day

"Artificial Intelligence" (AI) most appropriate definition for the moment is acting rationally with rational agent approach. It is based on the idea that a computer can perform reasoning logically and rationally can take action based on the results of such thinking.
Is it possible that many of our so-called "modern" inventions are in fact only prehistoric re-discovered by scientists of our own era? The monk "Gerbert d'Aurillac" (920-1003 AD), Professor of the University of Rheims who later became the somewhat controversial Pope Sylvester II, was reported to have possessed a bronze automaton which answered questions.

"This "robotic head" was constructed by the Pope "under certain stellar and planetary aspects."

This early computer would answer questions with "Yes" or "No" when a person asked something important concerning politics or religion. The "robotic head" was disposed of after the Pope's death, but records of its early programming and processing may still exist in the Vatican library that is full of secrets and collections that might shock the world.
Even more so than his most famous student, "St. Thomas of Aquinas" (1225 - 1274 AD). He was a learned man who was interested in various scientific endeavors that ranged from natural science all the way to theology. It took him over twenty years to construct his famous automaton called 'Androides'.
In his biography,Albertus Magnus revealed that the Android was composed of "metals and unknown substances chosen according to the stars". This mechanical man was able to walk, speak and performed household tasks. The robot lived together with Albertus and his most famous student, St. Thomas of Aquinas. Unfortunately, one day when Thomas Aquinas became tired of the talkative robot he grabbed a hammer and smashed the machine. This was the end of "Magnus Android".

Computer & Electronics Era

In 1941 has been found to storage and information processing tools. The discovery of so-called electronic computers were developed in the USA and Germany. The first computer requires a spacious room and a separate air conditioned room. When it involves the configuration of thousands of computer cables to run a program. It is very troublesome programmers.
In 1949, successfully created a computer that is capable of storing a program that makes the job to enter the program becomes easier. This discovery became the basis of the development of programs that lead to the "Artificial Intelligence" (AI).

"AI" Preparation Period

In 1943, Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitt suggests of the three things:

  • Knowledge of basic physiology and function of nerve cells in the brain,
  • A formal analysis of the logic of propositions, and,-
  • The computational theory of Turing.

They managed to create a model of neural cells in which each nerve cell is described as 'on' and 'off'. They show that every function can be calculated by a network of nerve cells and that all logical relationships can be implemented with simple network structure.
In 1950, Nobert Wiener makes the study of the principles of the theory of feedback. Famous example is the thermostat. The present invention is also the beginning of the development of "Artificial Intelligence" (AI). In 1956, John McCarthy assured Minsky, Claude Shannon and Nathaniel Rochester to help conduct research in midwifery automate, neural network learning and intelligence. They are working on this project for 2 months in Dartsmouth. The result is a program that is able to think of a non-numerical and problem solving thinking, which is called the Principal Mathematics. It makes McCarthy referred to as the Father of "Artificial Intelligence" (AI) or called "Mr. AI".

The Early development of "AI"

In the first years of development, "AI" experienced much success. Starting with Newell and Simon's success with a program called the "General Problem Solver". The program is designed to initiate a human problem solving. In 1958, McCarthy at MIT "AI" Lab Memo #1 defines a high-level programming language that is "LISP", which now dominates the manufacture of "Artificial Intelligence" (AI) programs. Then, McCarthy made a program called Programs "with Common Sense". In the program, created the design to use knowledge in the search for solutions.
In 1959, Nathaniel Rochester of IBM and his students issued an "Artificial Intelligence" (AI) program that is Geometry theorem provers. The program can issue a theorem using existing axioms. In 1963, James Slagle program created to solve problems for the closed integral calculus courses. In 1986, a program of artificial analogy Tom Evan resolve existing geometric analogy problems on IQ tests.

Knowledge-Based Systems

Knowledge is power "Artificial Intelligence" (AI)supporters. This is evidenced by a program created by Ed Feingenbaum, Bruce Buchanan and Joshua Lederberg who create programs "to solve the problem of the molecular structure of the information obtained from the mass spectrometer". The program is called "Dendral Program" that is focus on aspects of chemical knowledge. In terms of medical diagnosis there is also a find, namely "Sau Amarel" in Computer project in Bio-medicine. This project begins the desire to get the diagnosis of disease based on the existing knowledge on the mechanisms causing the disease process.

Artificial Neural Networks & Current "AI"

Return of Artificial Neural Networks. Although the field of computer science reject the Artificial Neural Networks after the publication of the book "Perceptrons" by Minsky and Papert, but scientists are still studying the art of another perspective, namely physics. The Physicists such as Hopfield (1982) using the techniques of statistical mechanics to analyze the properties of the pile and optimization on neural network. Psychologists, David Rumelhart and Geoff Hinton, continued research on the neural network model of memory.
In the 1985's at least four research groups found the back-propagation learning algorithm (Black-Propagation Learning). The algorithm is successfully implemented in the field of Computer Science and Psychology.
With the rapid development of hardware and software, various products have been successfully built and "Artificial Intelligence" (AI) is used in everyday life. Here, the products are grouped into four existing techniques in "Artificial Intelligence" (AI), i.e searching, reasoning, planning, and learning.

Thank you very much for your stopping here to read this page. I wishes Happy New Year 2015 and Have great days in the New Year coming. :)

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Artificial Intelligence, Artificial Neural Network, Artificial Senses, Computer Hardware, Computer Software, Computing, Programmers, Programming, Programming In C, Programming Software, Programs Information, Progression

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author avatar viewgreen
A CS engineer who loves to write about TI (Innovations), Socials, Cultures & Heritage (Local Wisdom), Humors and others that I am eager and interested to. Thank you! :D

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author avatar viewgreen
30th Dec 2014 (#)

Dear Mark! I thank you for the moderation and published this article. Wishes Happy New Year.

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author avatar Fern Mc Costigan
30th Dec 2014 (#)

Hang a star on this post very interesting and out of this world contents very informative viewgreen!

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author avatar viewgreen
31st Dec 2014 (#)

Thank you very for your supporting and encourage to my dear fern!

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author avatar Elanggunung
31st Dec 2014 (#)

Indeed and very informative posting. thanks.

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author avatar viewgreen
5th Jan 2015 (#)

Thank you for a good comment here... :)

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author avatar Gclick
2nd Jan 2015 (#)

Good job my friend viewgreen! and Awesome research for this unique topic. Thanks for sharing this information.

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author avatar viewgreen
5th Jan 2015 (#)

Thank you very much my friend Gclick! for a good supporting. Have good days in this new year.

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author avatar puncakceria
4th Jan 2015 (#)

good job my friend. it's so informative article,thank's for sharing this.

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author avatar viewgreen
5th Jan 2015 (#)

I appreciate with. Thank you my friend puncakceria!

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author avatar colouringstars♥
27th Jan 2015 (#)

nice article, Thanks for coming to my page also

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author avatar viewgreen
27th Jan 2015 (#)

Thank you and I will be coming to yours. cheers!

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