Exceptional Children: Background and Causes Part 2.

Hanson By Hanson, 28th Sep 2015 | Follow this author | RSS Feed
Posted in Wikinut>Writing>Children's

These are the "do's and don't" when on pregnancy to avoid handicapping condition.

Prenatal Factors

Even though this factors affect the pregnant mothers directly, they also have pronounce effect on the fetus. They include infection, chemicals, and other miscellaneous factors as listed below.

(i) Prenatal condition can be caused by viral, bacterial, or venereal infection. The infection can be very dangerous if it occur during a critical gestational period, that is, if the pregnant mother contracts the disease within the first three months of pregnancy. Some of the infections includes:

(a) Rubella: This is another name for German measles, it causes mental retardation, deafness, and still birth.

(b) Syphilis: A sexually transmitted disease in which others includes; gonorrhea and herpes. They all cause visual and hearing problems. Syphilis is also known to cause mental retardation, miscarriage, stillbirth, heart defect, kidney disease, and bone deformation.


Chemicals are also one of the important factor that is responsible for handicapping or exceptional conditions and they are discussed under the following headings. drugs, alcohol, smoking, air and water pollution.

(a) Drugs. Several drugs including prescription drugs caused damage to the fetus. such drugs include aspirin, phenobarbital , some antibiotics especially those in the "mycin" group, quinine, LSD, and transquilizers. They also caused malformations, cleft palate,chromosomal damage and deprived oxygen.

(b) Alcohol: Pregnant mothers who indulge in heavy alcoholic consumption take the risk of giving birth to children with fetal alcoholic syndrome. The syndrome is characterized by mental retardation, poor co.ordination, character disturbance and microcephaly.

(c) Smoking: Heavy smoking is associated with pre-maturity and low birth weight.

(d) Air and water pollution: Some of the pollutant in the air and water are lead, mercury, asbestos, chlorine and flourides. They capable of causing genetic and neurological damages including mental retardation, hyperactivity, and seizure, others are cancer and cardiosvascular ailment.

Miscellaneous Factors

Discussed under miscellaneous factors are nutrition, Rh factor, radiation, and maternal hemorrhage.

(i) Nutrition: Poor nutrition beside causing mental retardation, can also caused prematurity.

(ii) Rh Factor: This has to do with blood incompatibility, it can result in mental retardation and deafness.

(iii) Radiation: This occurs when one is exposed to X-rays for the purpose of diagnosis or treatment. Because of the light intensity of the rays, X-rays caused damage to the fetus especially within the first trimester of pregnancy. Such exposure causes mental retardation, microcephaly, leukemia (bone marrow cancer) and other cancers.

(iv) Mental Hemorrhage: Bleeding during the first trimester of pregnancy can cause hearing impairment.

Perinatal Factors

These are factors which occur a little before or at birth.

(a) High risk mothers: Mothers in this group need a close medical attention. Under this category are:
(i) Mothers who are either under 20 years or over 40 years of age.
(ii) Mothers with a history of miscarriage, and or still birth.
(iii) Expectant mothers with chronic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, and alcoholism.
(iv) Mothers with negative Rh factor.

(b) Physical Trauma: These are painful and stressful conditions caused by prolong labor, breeched birth, forceps delivery, maternal shock, and cesarean section. They all result in insufficient oxygen supply.

(c) Miscellaneous factors: Under this caption are: prematurity and asphyxia.

(i) Prematurity: A child is said to be premature if he or she is born before the first 37 weeks of pregnancy, or if the weight of the baby is below 2.5kg. It is a major cause of deafness.

(ii) Asphyxia: Insufficient intake of oxygen caused by perinatal stress. It causes neurological damage.


Air And Water Pollution, Chemicals And Drugs, Gonorrhea And Syphilis, Heavy Smoking And Alcoholism, Infection And Rubella, Nutrition And Rh Factor, Physical Trauma And Asphyxia, Prenatal Factors, Radiation And Maternal Hemorrhage

Meet the author

author avatar Hanson
Am a safety Professional down to earth, with passion for nature and the environment. My writing will focus on Safety and Environmental issues with other issues related to the children.

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