Factors Affecting The Effective Learning Of Oral English Interference

dominic61 By dominic61, 6th Oct 2015 | Follow this author | RSS Feed | Short URL http://nut.bz/3ro-kw7s/
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Factors Affecting The Effective Learning Of Oral
English Interference
In a learned language, interference means a negative effect. It is
erroneously believed that mother tongue is the language that one
comes in contact with in life.

Factors Affecting The Effective Learning Of Oral English Interference

In a learned language, interference means a negative effect. It is
erroneously believed that mother tongue is the language that one
comes in contact with in life.
According to Afolayan (2009) mother tongue is a language in which a
person has the greatest linguistic facility, the user of a mother tongue
identifies his native culture in the learning language which maybe
regarded as foreign language interference comes up as a result of
inconsistencies in the target language itself.
ORTHOGRAPHIC IN-CONSISTENCE
The English orthography is not consistent; a sound in the language
may be realized by different spelling Examples:
(a) /G/
Spelt "t" as in additional correction Spelt "ss" as in mission, passion
Spelt "sh" as in shake, she.
Spelt "sc" as in schedule, conscious
Spelt "s" as in Asian
Spelt "ch" as in machine
(b) /F/
Spelt "f' as in fact, frame
Spelt "ff' as in off, offend
Spelt "gh" as in cough, laugh
Spelt "ph" as in physics
(a) and (b) are example of how individual phonemic sounds assume
different spellings in English words the next examples is the reverse
of.
Examples (a) and (b) because it is the instance of how a single
alphabet in English is pronounced differently in many different words
in the language.
(c) “S”
Pronounced /s/ as in search, Cuts, Seize
Pronounced /C/ as In Asian
Pronounced /z/ as in dogs, girls
Pronounced /3/ as in Measure, Treasure
(d) Some letter is even silent in some English words. Example "b" is
silent in Comb, Bomb, and "gh" is silent in daughter. All these may
result into linguistic interferences.
Inter Lingual Interference
This comes about as a result of differences in the linguistics system of
two Languages in contact. There would be interlingual interference at
all level of language analysis i.e. at all level of phonology lexis, syntax
and even semantics, most examples of interference will be taken from
English/Yoruba language. According to Weinreich (2006) at the
phonemic level of interference four basic types can be discerned thus:
i. Under - Differentiation
ii. Over - Differentiation:
iii. Re - Interpretation of Phoneme
iv. Actual Phone Substitution .
Under - Differentiation:
Is a case where two or more sounds whose counterparts are not
distinguished in the primary system are confused. In the English
consonant sound, there are the voiceless palato alveolar fricative /G/
as well as the voiceless alveolar fricative /s/.These two sound of
English are distinct sounds in the language. They could therefore form
minimal pairs in English as we have in "ship" "sip", "she", "see"
In some dialects of Yoruba however e.g (Ogbomoso) there is the
absence of the voiceless palato alveolar fricative /G/. The ogbomoso
learner or even speaker of English may therefore have a problem
differentiating between the two consonant sound /s/ and /G/in
English.
i. Under - Differentiating may often involve more than two sounds in a
language. The Yoruba learner of the English language for instance may
under - differentiate up to four English vowels, most Yoruba speakers
of English collapse the English vowel /3:/, /a/, /D/ and /^/ into one
Yoruba vowel /O/.
This is illustrated in the example below
/wod/ Instead of the RP /w3: d/ for ward
/wod/ Instead of the RP /w:): d / for ward
/bon/ Instead of the RP /b:) : n / for born
/bon/ Instead of the RP /b3: d/ for cod
/kod/ Instead of the RP /kc: d / for cord
/bot/ Instead of the RP / b : t/ for but
/bot/ Instead of the RP / b:): t/ for bought
Thus, he does not distinguish minimal pairs in the language
ii. Over- Differentiation: is a situation where a speaker of language
interprets a single phoneme as: two or more separate phoneme in a
second language. In other words, he will pronounce a single phoneme
in many different ways.
This point will be illustrated with English shuwa sound /a/ which the
Yoruba speaker of English substitutes with the Yoruba vowel sounds: /
a /, /o/,/I/,/e/,/u/ and /o/.
Examples are given below.
/ 2fod/ Instead of a RP /afo: d/ for Afford
/ Koroson/Instead of a RP / / for Corruption
/matimatiks/ Instead of a RP/ / for Mathematics
/ Litretso/ Instead of a RP / / for literature
/control/ Instead of a RP - / / for control
It could be said from all examples that the replacement of the / /
sound in English by Yoruba vowel sounds is highly unpredictable
iii. Re- Interpretation of a phoneme is a case where the speaker of
language "A" gives a sound in language "B" a different interpretation
from that, in the language. For examples, aspiration is a marker
distinct phoneme in Hindi. The Hindi speaker may therefore realize the
aspiration and unaspirated stop as different and distinct phoneme in
English.
iv. Actual Phoneme Substitution, as the name implies simply means
substituting a phoneme in language "A" for another in language "B"
The English language for instance has the voiceless dental fricative /
O / which is absent in the Yoruba language. For this sound, therefore,
the Yoruba speaker of English simply Substitutes, the voiceless
alveolar plosive /t/, thus. The English word theme and thought are
realized as /Tim/ and not /tot/ respectively. It is important to note that
the interference of any of the four kinds discussed above can result
into the obstruction meaning.

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Comments

author avatar Sivaramakrishnan A
8th Oct 2015 (#)

Good take, thanks Dominic.

Under the overall umbrella of English language, there is immense variety in terms of pronunciation, intonation, even in the spelling. This is because it is spoken, understood, around all the world.

I can mostly make out, in the way it is spoken, from where the person comes from. Of course, even within English speaking countries it varies due to pronunciation, intonation etc.

I like to speak and write clearly and the rest is a bonus! Modern technology has extended this language's reach - siva

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