Glossary of terms serves as tips to learn various fields of international studies

ermetes adolfo jr. By ermetes adolfo jr., 2nd Jan 2013 | Follow this author | RSS Feed
Posted in Wikinut>Writing>Tips

High School and college students are required to research on the internet for the glossary of terms, write term papers or assigned topics to develop at the end of every quarter. The researcher must know how to use glossary of terms either in surfing over the internet or printed materials. Here are the important global educational terms and phrases with the content standard insertion using understanding by design (UbD) approach, public speaking terms, and teaching of linguistics.

Educational terms and phrases with understanding by design (UbD) approach

Content standard is one of the contents of understanding by design (UbD) that utilizes the ability of each learner to demonstrate comprehension of the interconnection among the fundamental or basic features and elements of drama, including the distinctive features, aesthetic elements and underlying objectives of varied types of global narratives, poetry, essay using the most appropriate language forms and functions that help the audience gain insights about the kind of world the people or characters inhabit.

Research procedures of macro-skills refer to the efficacy and interventions of teaching-learning process between the respondents and teacher wherein all instructions are specifically used as interventions of the study by the researcher based on the teaching-learning performance.

Oral quizzing points out to giving the grades of students during daily and graded recitations.

Objective examination is a kind of exam which is objective in nature and which is significant in the sense that when two or more persons scoring the same examination paper apart from one another will acquire the same test results.

Eclectic motivation gives emphasis to the importance of strategies in teaching wherein the teacher should not be utilizing one technique of motivation at a time and he must be utilizing as many strategies or techniques as possible at any given time.

Cognitive learning stresses out verbal and ideational learning which is also the acquisition of savvy, facts and information, concepts, comprehension, rationalization and the like.

Teaching the essence of education to students educates the values in the real sense that the learners with different backgrounds and personalities have one goal, one mission and one vision, and it imparts knowledge to them as students regardless of age, gender and race.

Language skills’ acquisition requires the mastery of a learner in terms of educational system that takes literally years to learn; in addition, it requires on the part of the teacher skill in noting the difficulties of the learners in both oral and written English, presuming that the students have mastered the listening skill while still in their elementary years.

Language facility raises student’s intelligence as measured by intelligence tests; and for this reason, the language facility in speaking and in writing is a must for the educator who has to find ways to teach all his students properly because if the students are taught properly, the latter can learn skills and concepts necessary to function in modern society.

Classroom management is concerned with the effective teaching and safety of every learner inside and outside of the classroom, including the administration of activities with special reference to diverse problems in educational settings; in addition, it is composed of the six educational elements such as discipline, democratic techniques, use of supplies and reference materials, physical features of the classroom, general housekeeping and social relationship of students.

Language learning is indispensable on the part of learners who undergo rigid studies of the language, but teaching involves much more than the savvy of methods and other significant learning approaches in acquiring a particular language.

Decision making is regarded as an outcome of mental processes leading to the selection of a course of action among several choices with different points of view, thus fulfilling every decision making that produces a final result in the educational learning process.

Multiple intelligences model is one of the contributory factors in panning out through a variety of learning style models that have been proposed in general education with follow-up inquiry by language educators in order to enhance, dredge up and discover the potentialities and capabilities of every learner in the classroom.

English for special purposes is one the desirable goals to strive in language teaching and in general communicative competence; besides, language teaching has a definite purpose, and the teachers themselves teach only the requisite for a particular purpose, be it an occupation or business English, or a domain which is English for Science and Technology.

Secondary freshmen are student-entrants of any learning institution to ameliorate learning based on the structured lessons, and they differ mentally according to the departmentalized lessons, advanced lessons presented, and general performance leading to their intellectual aspects of learning.

Students with their macro-skills may refer to the general aspect to grasp at the innovative teaching-learning approaches shared to them not only by the teachers but also by the freshmen in terms of the five (5) areas of English language teaching, namely, listening, speaking, reading, writing and viewing as sequenced in the lessons.

Replication is a kind of answer coming from the students who would like to share their notions about the topics given by the teacher and carry out the tasks with direct way of replicating the questions based on what has been transpired in the lessons.
Classroom operations’ management may refer to the entire control and operation of all classroom activities done by both the teachers and students.

Drill indicates a special activity in the classroom which has intended solely for the teacher’s objective or goal in strengthening the connections and bonds of a certain skill possessed by every student or person. It is one of the techniques done by the teacher in carrying out the task. Drill is one of the most widely utilized procedures in teaching.

Attention refers to the attitude of readiness for action to be performed by both the teacher and students in the classroom; in addition, it gives emphasis to the importance of a mental act or concentration of the mind’s energy on an object or thought wherein the participants are directly involved and they are ready to perform or answer the questions with ease and freedom.

Goals may refer to the aims of effective education, and these may also be either general or specific, or may be either philosophical or psychological.

Group activity is a school activity carried on cooperatively by a group of learners per subject, and it may perform or carry out usually in constitution, dramatization, projects, essays, declamations, speech choir, and so forth.

Teaching is the process of imparting knowledge or savvy to students regardless of age, gender and race; in addition to teaching, it is the process of directing, guiding, encouraging and stimulating learning activities in the classroom wherein the students and subject teacher will exchange ideas thoroughly of a certain topic that is being taught for a day-lesson-plan-teaching.

Word perception involves sensation with the eyes that intermediately catch sight of the printed symbols and with the aid of light rays that categorically strike the retina and other parts of the eyes that move in a swift and well-coordinated manner, jumping from term to term or word to word in a series of reading fixation.

Literal comprehension refers clearly to the understanding of facts or ideas extracted from the explicit or stated information given in the text or the answer itself comes directly from a textbook with fixed meaning.

Glossary of Selected Public Speaking Terms

The following is a glossary of terms commonly used by professional speakers and used also with regard to the teaching of speaking.

Consonants and vowels – these are the sounds produced by obstructing the breath stream either by narrowing or closing the speech tract before coming out of the mouth or nose and the sounds that vary as to the distance between the upper and lower front teeth without any obstruction or construction as the sound flows through the oral cavity.

Extemporaneous speaking – more formal than impromptu speaking for the reason that the latter requires the person concerned to stand barely a few minutes after a topic is given or suggested to him, and to present a more or less short and informal speech, improvising as the presenter goes along.

Implication and verbal inference – the former is geared towards suggesting a meaning hinted distinctly at but not directly or explicitly stated while the latter is drawing a conclusion from the statements, circumstances or evidence.

Mass media – may refer to the instruments accessed by the students in making contact with someone for the sake of acquiring or disseminating information.

Public speaking – a significant method for giving emphasis to the importance of oral communication, as well as stressing out one’s savvy and expressing one’s notions.

Active listening – it gears towards focusing on the speech given by the speaker himself and, at the same time, giving a solid attention to both the speaker and listener in a genuine attempt to comprehend the language in a speaker’s point of view.

Mechanics – may refer, on the other hand, to the pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary with a large extent of criteria utilizing the right diction or choice of words with a specific order and with a correct enunciation.

Acceptance speech – a speech that gives a profound gratitude, along with a present, an award, etc., especially to the concerned person who is turning over the position or delegated task in which the giver has the power to bestow upon.

Language speakers – highly regard speaking capability as the gauge of knowing or having cognizance of a language that leads to the ability to speak with others much more than the capability to read, write and understand oral communication.

Situational interview – it refers to the one who will be asked a series of questions by the speaker as interviewer himself that put him in a hypothetical situation. Thus, the interviewer would want to test the person’s capability to resolve a conflicting situation that may come up on the job.

Communication gap – it refers to miscommunication on account of the inability to share a common language regardless of races and cultural diversities.

Communicative language paradigm – it is a kind of teaching that helps students develop the capability to produce grammatically correct and logically patterned sentences that are specific in nature with a certain degree of context, and to practice it by utilizing such a paradigm into acceptable and comprehensible pronunciation.

Intonation – the rise and fall of the voice in speech shared by the speaker or oral performer just to convey its clear meaning. It is also the pitch contour of a phrase or sentence.

Functions for transaction and interaction – these speaking situations are clearly referred to as the savvy of communication when the clarity of message (delivered by the speaker) is indispensable as regards the transaction and information exchange, and when the precise comprehension is not required as regards the interaction and relationship building.

Consonant – a speech sound clearly produced with some constriction of the air stream.

Language learners – need to recognize clearly that speaking as part of the macro-skill involves the areas of communication savvy such as the mechanics, functions, social and cultural rules and norms.

Turning point – the point at which a decisive alteration or change transpires.
Pitch – it refers to the highness or the lowness of the voice in speech coming from a speaker or oral performer.

Suspense – the quality in a tale or story that makes the reader or speaker eager to dredge up or discover what happens next and how the story will end.

Communicative model of language teaching – the instructors as speakers with their fields of specialization can help their students develop the body of knowledge by providing genuine efforts and practices that holistically prepare students for real-life communication scenarios.

Conditioned sound change – historical phonological alteration that takes place in specific phonetic contexts, e.g., the voicing of /f/ to /v/ when it transpires between vowels.

Oral sound – a non-nasal speech sound from a speaker that clearly produced by raising the velum to close the nasal passage so that the air can escape only through the mouth.

Lax vowel – it refers to the vowel sound that clearly produced with less tension in the vocal cords and little tendency to diphthongize.

Screening interview – it is a preliminary interview usually conducted in the human resources department personnel as speakers which geared towards asking general questions about one’s qualifications, work experience, educational attainment and other pertinent information about the personal situation.

Interactive media – it is a kind of communicative media that enables users to respond to, and even control what they catch sight of and listen to.

Communication – the distinct process of sending a message from a human source to a human receiver.

Manner of articulation – the way the air is expelled as it flows out of the breath passage and under this dimension, consonants may be categorized some as plosives, nasals, affricates, laterals, glides and fricatives.






Glossary: The teaching of Linguistics

These are the commonly used linguistic terms by the students in tertiary education. Apply the macro-skills in teaching a language by knowing the importance of each term to all of us, as far as teaching the introduction to linguistics is concerned.

Syntax gives the function of every word in a sentence, and puts emphasis on the study of rules whereby the elements of sentence structure are put together to form grammatically correct sentences.

Stress is an accented mark or relative prominence brought about by intensity or force of utterance.

Grammar is a body of rules governing the use of a language.

Stressed syllables tend to transpire at regular intervals, and they are usually pronounced with greater force and length as well as with higher pitch.

Smoothness is carried out or achieved linguistically by blending the last sound of each word with the first sound of the next within a rhythm group.

Structure points out anything which is composed of the linguistic parts that are being arranged together in some other ways.

Parts of speech are also known as word classes composed of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections.

Word class refers to a set of words that connect the same through linguistic properties, including the inflections and distribution.

Sentence style suggests an aesthetic quality of prose and a quality determined by the relative smoothness in which the sentences are linguistically combined.

Linguistic transition is a clear indication of what is going to be uttered or said, a reference to what has already been said or both; perhaps, it may refer to a single word, a phrase, a sentence, a paragraph or a passage.

Case is the grammatical term that points out the relationship of the personal pronoun with other elements in the sentence.

Grammatical usage and style may indicate sentence propriety and make them respectable and socially acceptable; accordingly, they endow a sentence with charisma and emphasis, including sentence construction and distinction.

Three cases of pronoun may refer to the nominative, the possessive and the objective pronouns that have the same form and structure.

Morphology is the study of the structure of words, thus the rules for putting parts of words together to make an entire word or formation of a new word.

Present perfect progressive tense emphasizes the continuous nature of the activity or the duration of the action throughout a period of time.

Situational linguistic approach may refer to the live situations within the linguistic experiential background of the students that need attention and must be introduced into the reinforcement exercises.

Linguistic reinforcement activities are exercises on the grammatical functions and linguistic items; as far as possible, the material for the exercises deepens the savvy or knowledge of the culture of the people and provides insight into linguistic identity of the people regardless of races.

Phonetics refers to the in-depth study of the articulatory and acoustic properties of the sounds of human language.

Phonology is the systematic organization of distinct sounds or the study of how the sounds are properly organized and unambiguously utilized in natural languages.
Semantics is the logic with meaning which further gives emphasis to the importance of denotative meaning or connotative meaning of a word, phrase or sentence.

Tags

Educational Tips, Educational Writing, Linguistic Differences, Linguistic Factors, Linguists, Philosophical Inquiry Educational Technology, Speech Lessons

Meet the author

author avatar ermetes adolfo jr.
Graduated with the degrees of B.S.Ed.-English, M.A.T.-English, and Ed.D.-Educational Management. Topics to write are education, journalism, profession, religion & other writing tasks

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