History of Television

saleh By saleh, 7th Jul 2012 | Follow this author | RSS Feed
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History of television is traced back to World War 2 and this essay covers the pattern in which media improved our society or the set backs faced by masses by its invention.

Television industry

The television has come a long way from its initial avatar, that of a radio with visual projection capabilities. Television was developed in the 1920’s.
Commercial broadcasting began in the United States in 1939, but its development was put on hold by the outbreak of World War II. By the early 1950s, television was established as the dominant broadcast medium. Color television broadcasts came into widespread use in the 1964. (http://www.nyu.edu/classes/stephens/History%20of%20Television%20page.htm) Modern television took its final shape by completing a long journey. Early phases of television includes: Electromechanical television, Electronic television, Color television and Broadcast television.

Television usage in the United States skyrocketed after World War II with the lifting of the manufacturing freeze, war-related technological advances, the gradual expansion of the television networks westward, the drop in set prices caused by mass production, increased leisure time, and additional disposable income. It is said that the golden age of television in USA was from 1953-1960. (http://www.nyu.edu/classes/stephens/History%20of%20Television%20page.htm) Around the globe, broadcast television is financed by either: government, advertising, licensing (a form of tax), subscription or any combination of these. To protect revenues, subscription TV channels are usually encrypted to ensure that only subscription payers receive the decryption codes to see the signal. Unencrypted channels are known as free to air or FTA.

The social impact of television on masses is both a boon and a bane. It turns out to be bane as television violence is greatly apprehended by children. Social science research conducted over the past 40 years supports the conclusion that viewing violent television programming has negative consequences for children, and the research suggests three areas in which watching violent television programs can impact young viewers. It says that media violence can encourage children to learn aggressive behavior and attitudes, cultivate fearful or pessimistic attitudes and desensitize children to real-world and fantasy violence. (http://www.apa.org/science/about/psa/2003/10/anderson.aspx). However, television has morphed from a medium determined to spread mass culture, to creating a sense of reality. The medium has become more and more influential. It is a tool to create consent; mass consent.

Television contributes greatly to the centralization of power and knowledge.
The average child in USA will watch 8,000 murders on TV before finishing elementary school. By age eighteen, the average American has seen 200,000 acts of violence on TV, including 40,000 murders. (http://www.csun.edu/science/health/docs/tv&health.html) In a world where media consolidation becomes more and more common, it is harder and harder to distinguish between news information and entertainment or propaganda. Even though media consolidation is good for business, it is not good for television as a mass culture medium.

Television is a very powerful tool in propagating political issues as well. With the advent of TV, Americans could watch Congress doing debates and
political candidates used the TV to show themselves for people to vote for them in political campaigns. When TV came along, political intentions for vote was like the value of the stock market from Wall Street: ups and downs. Interestingly, political image advisers devoted their energies to several political candidates and presidents and told them how to manage their image! General Dwight D. Eisenhower was the first president of USA who used TV in his presidential campaign. (http://library.thinkquest.org/TQ0312172/eisenhower.html)

Media tycoons such as Rupert Murdoch admitted, in England, his intentions to manipulate popular knowledge to create support for politicians and policy for the War in Iraq.

Television is another way through which economic boost is experienced.
The foremost and popular method is advertising. Since, the TV became the new space of products to be known like cars, home appliances, canned soup, almost every industrial product that could be advertised was done so in order to make the TV viewer a potential consumer, so advertising evolved because of TV and demography, studies were done to target audiences with consumer potential. It was an effective way to bring the product to the consumer. Secondly, the production of TV sets brought a new industry of it self so electronics and product quality and mass production of TV sets came around.

The invention of television helped in creation of more jobs. There were actors, camera men, sound experts, TV directors and TV producers and many behind camera were paid for the TV show. Also, installation of TV antennas by the aid of government, installed many antennas to broadcast TV signs of waves.
Hence, TV had a network of public utilities much like power lines or water ducts or phone lines. Moreover, a proper legal framework for TV had to be regulated by laws. A new era of perfect competition began and audiences were given a wide variety of choice. Big companies came along like nbc, cbs, fox, Warner and all others with time so competition for audiences became heavy


Creation Of More Jobs, Fta, Media, Political Issues, Social Impact, World War Ii

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author avatar saleh
I am a student of English Literature. I am a diligent worker nd most of the time am able to complete tasks on time. I'll love to do stuff which is related to my field.

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