Manuscripts: The Inscriptions of a Brilliantly "Renaissance Man”

viewgreenStarred Page By viewgreen, 18th Jan 2015 | Follow this author | RSS Feed | Short URL http://nut.bz/3375i6e0/
Posted in Wikinut>Writing>Biography & Autobiography

Leonardo is one of the greatest geniuses in history. He was also very much a product of the time, and that time is of the Italian Renaissance. Renaissance began in Italy almost six hundred years ago, in the early fourteen hundreds. Renaissance means "rebirth".

The Masterpieces

This rebirth refers to the fact that artists and scientists rediscovered knowledge of ancient Greece and Rome, which had been lost to them for a thousand years. They apply the classical knowledge to their own investigation of the natural world and mankind.
Leonardo da Vinci created masterpieces of art and sculpture. Equally remarkable, his aggregate achievements in engineering, mathematics, anatomy, geology, physics, music, military technology, aeronautics, and a wide range of other fields, not only stood without peer in his own time, but were strikingly prescient for the distant future. He recorded his forward-looking ideas in thousands of notebook pages, known as Codices.
Because the most significant changes that occurred during the Renaissance is a shift in the way Europeans view the world. They no longer rely only on the knowledge they have of the church or of the past. They put their faith, especially in what they themselves observed. This passion for observing nature to learn the secret is what characterizes the genius of Leonardo more than anything else.

Creations of scheme and model

Leonardo applies his knowledge in a practical way for the creation of a mechanical device. In this room is a scheme and a model for the type of device that he designed. They include ball bearings, gears, wind meter, spinning machine, a printing machine, clock, coin stamping machine, and others. It is interesting to note that many of the things he imagined at the beginning of the sixteenth century only be practical twentieth century. And then, when after Leonardo's death in 1519 Francesco Melzi, his favorite pupil, bringing many texts and images back to Italy. This is confirmed by a note written by an agent of the Duke of Ferrara, dated 1523, refers to: "booklets by Leonardo about anatomy, and many other interesting things", a fact mentioned also by the early sixteenth century sources, the "Anonimo Gaddiano", in terms of the legacy left by Leonardo to Melzi, which include: "cash, clothes, books, drawings, paintings and portraits instruments".

Mirror Image

Fortunately, large output for Leonardo, more than five thousand pages of drawings and notes have come down to us, in his characteristic "mirror image" handwriting, running from right to left. But this huge mass of writings, certainly the largest collection of the entire Renaissance, undergoes many changes after Leonardo's death. In fact, the manuscripts of Leonardo today is not like the way they appear and are grouped together for life, or even when they passed into the hands of a faithful disciple, Francesco Melzi. It is heir Melzi who, after his death in 1579, began to spread the material. Have no idea of their importance, they are initially stored images of Leonardo and manuscripts in the attic, and then give it away or sell parts cheap sheets to friends and collectors.
When after in 1630, which Barnabite Antonio Mazenta talk about the spread of the manuscripts of Leonardo, and singles out Pompeo Leoni, a sculptor at the court of the King of Spain, as one of those primarily responsible not only for the loss of part of the collection, but even worse, to organize re-order it. Indeed, in an effort to sort the artistic drawings from the technical, and to gather the scientific record, he split the original script, cut and pasted pages and created two separate collections.

Lost in Paris

One of which is now called the "Codex Atlanticus", another collection of Windsor, which contains several hundred six images. Using the same method, Leone went on to make more so in four volumes. After the death of "Leoni", heirs brought part of the manuscript back to Italy, where they were purchased by Count Galeazzo Arconati who, in 1637, donated them to the Biblioteca Ambrosiana where they lived until 1796, the year of the arrival of Napoleon Bonaparte in Milan. Napoleon ordered the manuscript to be transferred to Paris, but in 1851 the Austrian Government asked them back.
Only the actual "Codex Atlanticus" was back, while the other of twelve manuscripts, marked with the letters "A through M", remained in Paris, and considered as lost. Other manuscripts live in Spain and then go their way. Others remained undiscovered until 1966, when they discovered quite by chance in the archives of the National Library of Madrid.

The Codex

The "Codex Leicester" today (formerly "Codex Hammer") is not the one script that Melzi was not inherited and that, oddly enough, aside from the way most of the other Leonardo's notes and today is the script can only be found in private hands. The study of the manuscripts of Leonardo only begin to systematically towards the mid-19th century; around the turn of the century this investigation led to the formation of "Vinci Royal Commission", the purpose of this study tiring and transcription is to reconstruct the original composition of the manuscript.
The first public exhibition of the works of Leonardo's scientific and technology dates back to this period. This is why the image of Leonardo divided into ten different scripts:

  • Codex Arundel
  • This collection is kept in the British Library in London. It consists of a manuscript on paper bound in morocco leather, which contains 238 pages with different sizes have been cut and removed from other manuscripts. This collection deals with a variety of different subjects including studies in geometry, weights and architecture. Among the latter is a record of the royal residence of François I in Romarantin (France). Most pages can be dated to between 1480 and 1518.

  • Codex Atlanticus
  • It Codex, kept in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan, contains a number of images, most of which can be dated to the period 1480-1518. Various themes touched, from "mathematics to geometry, Botany, Zoology Astronomy, and Military Arts". Today consists of twelve volumes bound in leather, which consists of 1,119 gathered support pages of different sizes. The name "Codex Atlanticus" comes from the fact that initially all the sheets contained in a single large volume size, not as an actual atlas. The Codex Atlanticus was created around the end of the sixteenth century by the sculptor Pompeo Leoni, who - in disaster operations - cut Leonardo original manuscript that has come into his own. Leoni separated all the scientific and technical drawings, these days there are in the Codex, from the naturalistic and anatomy, many of which are today part of the collection of the Royal Windsor.

  • Codex Trivulzianus
  • Codex Trivulzianus held in Biblioteca Trivulziana at the Castello Sforzesco in Milan, and consists of a folder containing 55 sheets (measuring 20.5 x 14 cm), from the original 62. In addition to studies in architecture and religious themes, contains many pages testify to self-taught Leonardo efforts to improve the educational literature. Most of the pages date from between 1487 and 1490.

  • Codex 'On the Flight of Birds'
  • Held in the Bibliotheca Reale of Turin, this collection includes 17 pages (size 21 x 15 cm) from the original 18. It mainly deals with the flight of birds, which Leonardo analyzed with a very rigorous approach, paying special attention to the mechanism of flight, as well as air resistance, wind and currents. The pages can be dated to around 1505.
    "Leonardo's Flight" describes the content and history of this historically prescient
    Here following the video of his notebook about flight:

  • Codex Ashburnham
  • This codex can be found at the Institute de France, in Paris. The two of cardboard-bound manuscripts (measuring up; 24 x 19 cm). The part of Codex A originally, from which they were torn in the 19th century. Conventionally identified as number 2037 (former Codex B) and number 2038 (former Codex A). Collections mainly contain pictorial studies (Ash. 2038) and a wide variety of images (Ash. 2037), which is likely Leonardo attracting between 1489 and 1492.

  • Manuscripts of the Institute of France.
  • These documents can be found at the Institute de France in Paris, and consists of twelve paper manuscripts, some bound in parchment, others in the skin, and others are still in the box. They are in various sizes, the smallest become Codex M (10 x 7 cm) and the largest Codex C (31 x 22 cm). They are conventionally identified by letters of the alphabet, from A to M. various subjects include: military art, optics, geometry, the flight of birds, hydraulics. Most of the pages can be dated, perhaps, for the period between 1492 and 1516.

  • Codex Forster
  • These manuscripts are in London, at the Victoria and Albert Museum. Manuscript parchment paper-bound and are known as: "Forster I" (14 x 10 cm), "Forster II" (10 x 7 cm) and "Forster III" (9 x 7 cm). They include the study of geometry, weights and hydraulic machines which Leonardo carried out in different periods, between 1490 and 1496 for "Forster III", between 1495 and 1497 for "Forster II" and between 1487 and 1490 to 1505 for "Forster me".

  • Codex Leicester or Codex Hammer
  • Codex was purchased by Bill Gates in 1994. It is a paper manuscript, bound in leather and consists of 64 sheets of 30 x 22 cm, which is dedicated for the most part to studies in hydraulics and water movement; manuscript can be dated to the period between 1504 and 1506. Several studies in Geology and Astronomy are also included.

  • Windsor folio
  • These images can be found in Windsor Castle (Royal Collection) and consists of an image tied around 600 various sizes. They pay attention to Anatomy and Geography, horse studies, drawings, caricatures and a series of maps. The images belong to different periods in the life of Leonardo, roughly between 1478 and 1518.

  • Codices in Madrid
  • these manuscripts at the National Library of Madrid, where they were rediscovered only in 1966. Two of the manuscript paper bound in red morocco leather. For fast identification purposes, they were named "Madrid I" and "Madrid II". Most of the pages contained in the "Madrid I" - 192 sheets (21 x 15 cm in size.) - Study attention prevalently in mechanics and can be dated to between 1490 and 1496, while they were "Madrid II" which is dedicated to studies in geometry, and dated to between 1503 and 1505.

Renaissance Man

Da Vinci has been called a genius and the archetypal Renaissance man. His talents in arguably extended far beyond his artistic works. Like many leaders of Renaissance humanism, he did not see a divide between science and art. His observations and inventions were recorded in 13,000 pages of notes and drawings, including designs for flying machines (some 400 years before the Wright brothers' first success), plant studies, war machinery, anatomy and architecture. His ideas were mainly theoretical explanations, laid out in exacting detail, but they were rarely experimental. His drawings of "a fetus in utero", the heart and vascular system, sex organs, and other bone and muscular structures, are some of the first on human record. One of the da Vinci's last commissioned works was a mechanical lion that could walk and open its chest to reveal a bouquet of lilies. The famous artist died in Amboise, France, on May 2, 1519. Da Vinci's assistant and perhaps his lover, Francesco Melzi, became the principal heir and executor of his estate. Here following the others video of his flight inscriptions:

Clearly the notebooks were written for his own personal use. The organization is minimal. The lettering is quick, sloppy and often without punctuation. There is some indication he employed personal shorthand, making the content confusing to read.

Conclusions and Data Credit**

In many places the pen seems to race along trying to keep up with the revelations of the mind. Much of the books appear to be lab notes. Leonardo used the scientific method before the scientific method had been invented. In one revealing passage he states:

"First I shall make some experiments before I proceed further, because my intention is to consult experience first and then by means of reasoning show why such experiment is bound to work in such a way. And this is the rule by which those who analyze natural effects must proceed; and although nature begins with the cause and ends with the experience, we must follow the opposite course, namely (as I said before), begin with the experience and by means of it investigate the cause."

In many of his books Leonardo employed a backwards form of writing that could only be read with a mirror. It is unknown why he did this. Some historians speculate he did it to keep his writings private, others think that because he was left-handed he just found it easier and faster to write this way.

Thank you very much for your stopping here to read this page. Wish you all have a good day. :)

Da Vinci - ©2015| viewgreen for the Wikinut - Unique Contents.

**Referenced:

**Images Credit:

**The Videos:
"Leonardo's Flight" describes the content and history of this historically prescient
These videos Courtesy of Youtube by: Silvia Rosa Brusin, RAI Radiotelevisione Italiana


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Tags

Codex, Codex Arundel, Codex Atlanticus, Codex Forster, Codex Leicester, Codex On The Flight Of Birds, Codex Trivulzianus, Italy, Leonardo Da Vinci, Paris, Renaissance, Renaissance Architecture, Renaissance Literature, Rome, Spain, The Virgin Of The Rocks, Turin, Vinci, Western Philosophy, Western World

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author avatar viewgreen
A CS engineer who loves to write about TI (Innovations), Socials, Cultures & Heritage (Local Wisdom), Humors and others that I am eager and interested to. Thank you! :D

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author avatar viewgreen
19th Jan 2015 (#)

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19th Jan 2015 (#)

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20th Jan 2015 (#)

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蒼蝿粉 INVERMA 粉剤媚薬:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/%E8%92%BC%E8%9D%BF%E7%B2%89.html


MaxMan(MMCII代)ペニス増大:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/MaxMan.html
蔵秘雄精:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/%E8%94%B5%E7%A7%98%E9%9B%84%E7%B2%BE.html
MACA:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/MACA.html
回春堂海狗王:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/hchaigouwang.html
福潤宝カプセル:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/furuibao.html
頂点3000:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/CROWN3000.html


三體牛鞭:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/%E4%B8%89%E4%BD%93%E7%89%9B%E9%9E%AD.html
狼1号:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/%E7%8B%BC1%E5%8F%B7.html
狼一号:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/狼1号.html
三体牛鞭:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/三体牛鞭.html
D10媚薬:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/D10.html
D10催情剤:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/D10.html
威哥王:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/威哥王.html
巨人倍増:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/巨人倍増.html
中絶薬:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/中絶薬RU486.html
RU486:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/RU486.html
妖姫:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/youhi.html
花痴:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/花痴.html
紅蜘蛛:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/紅蜘蛛.html
三體牛鞭:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/三体牛鞭.html
新曲美:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/%E6%9B%B2%E7%BE%8E.html 
五夜神生精片:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/wuyeshengjing.html
巨根カプセル:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/%E5%B7%A8%E6%A0%B9.html
壮根精華素:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/%E5%A3%AE%E6%A0%B9.html
超強黒倍王:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/%E9%BB%92%E5%80%8D%E7%8E%8B.html
バイアグラ:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/weigw.html
SEX&ON(性1号)女性用媚薬/催淫:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/xingyihao.html
SPANISCHE FLIEGED6:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/SPANISCHEFLIEGE-D6.html
蒼蝿水(FLY D5原液):http://www.hikanpou.com/product/%E8%92%BC%E8%9D%BF%E6%B0%B4.html
SPANISCHE FLIEGE D6II:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/SPANISCHEFLIEGED6.html
Spanish sex drops D8:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/SpanishFliegeD8.html
SPANISCHE FLIEGE D9:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/SPANISCHEFLIEGED9.html
SPANISCHE FLIEGE D5:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/SPANISCHEFLIEGED5.html

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